24/7 Support Line
Families of veterans can experience psychological and emotional stress while their loved one is deployed, and after they have returned home and retired from the service. Mental health disorders from the stress of active duty can lead veterans to develop a substance abuse disorder, which can negatively impact life at home.
There’s no question that members of the United States Armed Forces returning from combat or leaving active duty may face many challenges when they return from deployment or leave the service, such as:
This pressure, as well as the stress and the experiences from their time in combat or on active duty, can contribute to the development of mental health and substance abuse problems among active duty and veterans.
Stressors that families can experience when their veteran loved one has a substance abuse disorder can include caregiver burden, which may manifest as:1
Understanding how substance abuse and associated struggles affect veterans is important to encourage them to seek help. However, it’s equally important to understand how these disorders can contribute to stress in military families and affect the health of family members.
As their veteran deals with these mental or substance disorders, spouses, children, parents, and siblings of service members may often struggle right alongside their loved ones.1
Behavioral changes like drinking a lot or abusing drugs, alongside personality changes from a traumatic brain injury (TBI) or PTSD, can be very stressful and intense on families.
Depression among family members of the veteran can be common because they realize their loved one was not as safe as they had hoped when they were deployed. This can cause a shift in their world view, where they feel grief from loss of that feeling of safety.1
And, unfortunately, substance abuse and/or mental health disorders can, in some instances, increase the likelihood of emotional or physical violence from the military veteran.2
Partners of military veterans with PTSD and a co-occurring substance use disorder are proven to have more distress in their relationship and their family lives.3
Researchers were able to predict—based on symptoms of trauma in Iraq and Afghanistan war veterans—lower satisfaction in relationships the first year after returning home.4
In these instances, lower satisfaction can come from:3
In instances where a veteran has PTSD and/or a co-occurring substance use disorder, a veteran’s partner can often feel:3
It can be challenging to confront and deal with the symptoms of PTSD and substance abuse their partners have. Coping with their veteran’s struggles may mean that their own needs go unaddressed in the relationship.
Similarly, children whose parents have PTSD may suffer mental and emotional stress. They may respond in certain ways like:5
Children whose parents abuse drugs or alcohol are less likely to receive other types of care they need, like medical or dental care. They are less likely to get prenatal care and early childhood care for the first two years of life. This stress may contribute to later substance abuse problems.6 Among families of veterans, substance abuse may compound other problems from mental health struggles.
High stress from time in combat leading to PTSD, traumatic brain injury (TBI), and physical pain can increase the risk of alcohol abuse, smoking cigarettes, prescription opioid and sedative abuse, and even illicit drug use like marijuana abuse.7
Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) affects current and retired servicemen and women at a higher rate8 than the civilian population9. Military veterans returning from combat with depression or PTSD are around 5 times more likely to have a problem with family readjustment than veterans without those diagnoses.2
PTSD is one of the more common mental health disorders among the active duty and veteran population. It’s associated with high rates of:10
A traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a hit to the head that results in causes a disruption in how the brain functions normally. A mild TBI is considered a concussion, but there are also moderate, severe, and penetrating diagnoses of TBI.11
A TBI from combat can lead to mental and behavioral changes that contribute to higher rates of addiction and suicide in veterans.12
A military veteran who experienced a TBI may be at a higher risk of:13
Veterans are more likely to experience chronic pain than civilians.14
Combat injuries and bodily wear and tear from carrying heavy equipment or using ill-fitting gear or machines can lead to military veterans dealing with chronic pain. A military veteran’s doctor may prescribe opioids or other strong pain medications to help the vet control the pain. From here, illegal use of a prescription—such as taking too much at a time—can occur.15
When a loved one returns from a tour of duty, they may display new behaviors or emotional states, which could indicate PTSD, depression, substance abuse, a TBI, or chronic pain. The VA recommends that family members take a few steps to be supportive of their veteran loved one and encourage them to get help, such as:16
You can also take a look at our guide for how to help a loved one who has a substance use disorder.
Military veterans who go to treatment will most likely encounter treatment options like:
The VA has programs for PTSD and for substance use disorders. Some facilities across the U.S., like Recovery First, offer specific treatment tracks that are created for military veterans struggling with addiction and potentially co-occurring disorders.
The VA also points out that families of veterans need to take time to care for themselves. Family therapy and individual counseling are key components of this because therapy can help everyone understand the root causes of PTSD, how it impacts everyone, and how to develop healthier coping mechanisms.
Other ways the VA recommends caring for oneself include: